Our personal ranges, Vaporony High PG and Vaporony Shortfills, are all produced and bottled inside the UK from the simplest components obtainable. As one of many leading on-line Vape firms, we provide a wide selection of e-liquids from totally different manufacturers in different flavours and strengths. Sub-ohm gadgets use extreme wattage batteries to extend vapor manufacturing and it permits for extra direct to lung vapor action. Whether it’s mix-and-match or discounted bundles, you possibly can explore the staggering number of flavours or simply hold stocked up on your favourites, all whereas saving cash. Airflow can really alter your vaping experience that shifts your mood into a more blissful state.
Add to this a 2600mAh integrated battery and it moreover presents loads of uninterrupted vaping. This does come as a equipment so may not be appropriate for those wanting to use their very own tank. If you should keep away from getting a burnt hit, bear in mind to on a regular basis prime your coils correctly. Burnt hits are the results of powering an atomizer when there isn’t any liquid or not sufficient on the wicks. Without liquid to vaporize, the coils begin burning the wick, and the patron principally inhales burnt cotton.
Vape store workers could be joyful to seek the advice of you about basically primarily probably the most applicable vaping hardware and e-liquids based totally in your stage of vaping. For vapers who prefer to construct, we offer premium coil wire and cotton wick that will assist you to create your non-public coils.
Sub-ohm items use excessive wattage batteries to extend vapor manufacturing and it permits for further direct to lung vapor motion. Whether it’s combine-and-match or discounted bundles, you can discover the staggering number of flavours or just keep stocked up in your favourites, all whereas saving money. Airflow can actually alter your vaping experience that shifts your temper doozy vape nic salt vimto crush 10mg right into a further blissful state. The Eliquid Boutique provides you highly customizable vaping kits that have the tendency to adjust the airflow in accordance together with your vaping wants. And incessantly altering vaping kits or their batteries is the very last item we’d want our prospects to be apprehensive about.
Same Day Delivery
Vapestore solely stock one of the best e-liquids, that includes a galaxy of flavours throughout every kind of e-liquid. Our vape store directory has been created by our group of enthusiastic vapers, along with the help from our UK vaping group and our superior purchasers. This will allow you to to ensure that your trip isn’t in ineffective and hopefully it is possible for you to to determine a vape store in Edinburgh that’s best for you. As certainly nic nic nicotine shot 18mg one of many primary online Vape corporations, we offer a big selection of e-liquids from completely completely different brands in quite a few flavours and strengths. We supply a variety of e liquids suited to all types of vapers from these starting out to those that have been vaoing with us since 2008. All of our e-liquids are of a premium commonplace so that you can make sure the e liquid you vape is of the highest necessities.
The range consists of vape hardware from in style producers SMOKTech, Aspire, Geek vape and Vaporesso. Our e-liquid assortment is unrivalled, with over one thousand flavours from one of the best e-cigarette manufacturers along with Dinner Lady, IVG and Nasty Juice. Vaping could also be an endlessly good, palms-on pastime for fanatics which is why we offer a number of premium provides and equipment. There is little doubt about it vaping is unquestionably an alternate which is ninety 5% much less harmful than smoking as found by Public Health England of their proof consider.
NextDayVapes sources an enormous array of flavours to accommodate the different tastes of e-cig customers, including the ever-popular fruit and dessert flavours. Another widespread ingredient is a nicotine solution which ranges in energy, whereas some e-liquids can be nicotine-free. Established in 2012, we are the UK’s largest on-line vape store offering the widest range of eliquids and vape hardware out there.
Vape Sourcing might be going considered one of many newest Chinese retailers to supply some wonderful pricing on the latest vape gear. The Titan X 2021 by ePuffer is small enough to fit inside the palm of your hand but extremely environment friendly adequate to face up to completely different box mods. Some oil carts benefit from ceramic coil strategies which might require further voltage than conventional to understand a satisfying puff. Sub-ohm items use extreme wattage batteries to increase vapor manufacturing and it permits for added direct to lung vapor motion.
These vape pens are normally greater than these marketed in path of an MTL vape market as they require larger batteries. What this implies is that you simply’re going to get extra nicotine as compared with lower wattage devices which might be mouth to lung devices. With e-juices solely containing four major parts , this is in all probability one of many many the rationale why it’s exhausting to verify cigarettes with vaping. It is feasible to dry positive herbs and flowers, crush them after which insert them right into a vape pen which is suited to vaping them. We are a serious on-line vape store, engaged on lengthy lasting relationships with ethical and accountable producers and suppliers.
It is troublesome to advocate because it is decided by how a lot you freebase vaping you might be doing now. Possibly attempt Coils as you should avoid being overwhelmed by too much nicotine and regulate how you’re feeling from there. Their RDA and RTA providing is unrivalled and so they even have their very own extremely rated Project Sub Ohm vary. The nice information is they’re prime-of-the-line on the market, particularly when it comes to their Tobacco vapes.
Vape Shop in Dacorum, UK
As the largest distributors of vaping products within the UK, we get our arms on the newest merchandise earlier than anyone else. UK ECIG STORE is the UK’s primary on-line e cig retailer providing vaping hardware,e-liquidsande-cigarette starter kitssince 2012. We provide free provide on orders over £20, similar day dispatch and industry main customer support. Our our unique fruits full shortfill range can be found huge 60ml bottles and incorporates our four unique fruits vary flavours. You get 50ml of juice in each shortfill bottle, with area to add your private 10ml nicotine shot separately when you wish to. At Vape Superstore our primary objective is to assist individuals who smoke make the swap to vaping.
Get an honest amount of CBD in your vapor, THE go-to cannabinoid to counter all the unfavorable side-results of THC. The explorer of consciousness ought to go excessive enough to vaporize most of the THC (in accordance with this look at this point is at 365°F(185°C)). As an explorer of consciousness, the optimum vaping temperature must be at around 365°F(185°C). Freemax Mesh Pro Coils, the primary a number of mesh coils on the planet, are appropriate with Freemax Mesh Pro Tank.
510 oil mods – The newer fashion of 510 thread batteries look something like a pocketable version of a vape mod, however are usually lighter and extra compact. They have normal 510 threads, and typically make the most of magnetic adapters that let you to simply slide your cartridges in. Many of them are draw-activated, nevertheless some make the most of a firing button and variable voltage settings, so you can crank it up and get a extra highly effective hit.
Not you could not do mouth to lung – you need to find your candy spot and there are different tips like lowering air consumption amount and so forth. Vaping differs from smoking as there isn’t a combustion, which results in greater particle measurement distribution for nicotine to enter the blood stream. Online sources report between being able to odor smoked hashish anyplace from ten-to-50 yards from the source. Several school children in Greater Manchester collapsed after vaping Spice mis-bought as ‘natural hashish’. You will get much less taste and exhale a lot much less vapor, with out the nastiness and coughing that embrace a burnt hit. Competitive vapors or extra typically usually often known as “cloud chasers” use sub-ohm vapes which examine with a coil resistance lower than 1-ohm.
Choosing one of the best type of CBD product on your life-style will make a distinction within the benefits whereas treating your ailment. When that occurs, the coils can burn the wicks, even when there’s nonetheless some juice there. Burnt What Does Tpd E Liquid Testing Uk Involve are the results of powering an atomizer when there isn’t any liquid or not adequate on the wicks. Without liquid to vaporize, the coils start burning the wick, and the consumer primarily inhales burnt cotton. Flower, additionally known as “bud,” refers back to the smokeable a part of the cannabis plant that has gone by the use of the cultivation, harvest, drying, and curing course of. For most people, the necessary factor is that you simply just’re taking your CBD oil on the similar time every single day to verify its results are constant. If you want some professional recommendation or are not sure which e-cigarette to purchase or can’t determine which ecig starter bundle matches you most interesting, our customer assist employees is ready to help.
Vape Shop in Waverley, UK
Our specialist on-line vape store provides the biggest selection of electronic cigarettes, hardware and e-liquids inside the UK. With our price match promise and professional info, we help vapers in the UK and worldwide discover one of the best product on the right price, multi useful retailer. We get hold of mannequin new hardware and juices direct from producers daily, and offer you exactly the equivalent merchandise that we ship out daily to retailers all through the nation. Vapestore solely stock the best e-liquids, that features a galaxy of flavours all through each type of e-liquid.
Remember, these are broad pointers and selecting the best nicotine power will range from person to person. They ship across Europe and provide a forty five day return coverage with identical day dispatch with purchases earlier than 6pm. Follow the instructions on your chosen merchandise to forestall overfeeding and nutrient burn. Growers throughout the south-east and south-west should make sure their greenhouses and polytunnels are properly-ventilated. Occasional warmth waves will significantly increase the temperature in these structures, to the diploma that it’d harm your vegetation. Layer them with straw or wooden chip mulch to entice moisture and prevent weeds from returning. For further extreme circumstances, a a lot higher dose is also wished — and a few patients are recognized to go as much as 1 gram per day.
Our community on HealthUnlocked offers members with a dialogue board to share experiences and in addition hosts polls and blogs. To register and be part of the dialog with completely different members of Pain Concern’s neighborhood please click on on on the button under. Our quarterly journal incorporates info and options on self-administration techniques, ache therapies and private experiences of residing with ache.
Vape Shop in Lisburn, UK
All of our e-liquids are of a premium normal in order to verify the e liquid you vape is of the most effective requirements. Our finest promoting flavours embrace Menthol, Blackcurrant and Iced Blackcurrant however with lots of of flavours to choose from we’re assured you can see your excellent one. When visiting any one of our VPZ outlets throughout the UK, you can depend on the biggest range of eliquids in town and one of the best vaping models in the marketplace. There are so many different vaping items in the marketplace that it could possibly be troublesome to know which one to decide on whenever you’re starting out.
510 oil mods – The newer kind of 510 thread batteries look one thing like a pocketable model of a vape mod, nonetheless are usually lighter and further compact. They have commonplace 510 threads, and sometimes make the most of magnetic adapters that let you to simply slide your cartridges in. Many of them are draw-activated, nevertheless some utilize a firing button and variable voltage settings, so that you possibly can crank it up and get a additional powerful hit.
510 oil mods – The newer fashion of 510 thread batteries look one factor like a pocketable mannequin of a vape mod, nonetheless are usually lighter and extra compact. They have standard 510 threads, and often benefit from magnetic adapters that allow you to to easily slide your cartridges in. Many of them are draw-activated, nonetheless some benefit from a firing button and variable voltage settings, so you possibly can crank it up and get a more extremely efficient hit. The Linx Hypnos Battery works with the Hypnos Zero atomizer, and most of your 510 oil cartridges. It is paying homage to the essential eGo battery, nonetheless constructed of a lot higher high quality components.
It is troublesome to advocate on account of it’s decided by how so much you freebase vaping you may be doing now. Possibly try Coils as you should stay away from being overwhelmed by an extreme amount of nicotine and regulate how you feel from there. Unlike other methods of cannabis consumption, flower wouldn’t have a standard dosing development. Potency is measured by the complete focus of cannabinoids and is expressed in proportion of mg/g. For event, a menu merchandise of Hardcore OG may read as 18.eighty four% THC, which signifies that there are 188.forty milligrams of Tetrahydrocannabinol per gram of flower. Finally, place the desired quantity of flower in your skinny paper and roll up, using an adhesive very like THC oil or honey to seal the joint.
Come and expertise myCigara and we are in a position to assure you a devoted team in providing top-of-the-line service on-line and in-retailer. At myCigara we’re right right here to help you and the vape group at big to remain smoke free with 12 Retail retailers you could make sure to search out our vape retailer near you. We would possibly be able to reply any questions and data you thru starter kits to superior sub ohm choices. With 2ML juice performance and 24mm diameter, the Manta RTA is a flavour chasers dream with separate resin tube and drip tip. It moreover vape evaluate of my man 180ml e liquid by one hit marvel choices the tri-gap backside airflow system and prime filling design for optimum style and useful operation.
The e-cigarette market is turning into superior on account of the stem of “digital” cigarettes suggests. Just like within the TV, laptop computer laptop laptop and smartphone industries, digital cigarettes have gotten further refined and superior as we write and so are the vapers. Operating new e-cigarette gadgets comparable to drippers and sub tanks isn’t the same as pulling in your typical cigalike. You will find our widest differ of merchandise do you have to store online direct with us, along with more nicotine strengths in our refills and our nicely-appreciated range of fifty/50 e-liquids. Find your native vape shops in Edinburgh, Scotland with our in depth and simple-to-navigate UK vape retailer itemizing. Our vape shop listing has been created by our staff of enthusiastic vapers, along with the help from our UK vaping community and our superior prospects.
The glass cap is positioned on prime and creates a low stress zone inside the bucket, permitting the fabric to vaporize at a decrease temperature than the ambient ambiance. This is emphasised much more so with hash rosin due to its lower yield percentages as compared with solvent-derived concentrates (.3-eight% rosin vs 10-20% hydrocarbon). A wide number of solvents can be used for extraction, comparable to chloroform, dichloromethane, petroleum ether, naphtha, benzene, butane, methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, and olive oil.
Here are a number of the commonest causes behind burnt hits and a few recommendation to help you keep away from them. Although most vapers use these terms interchangeably, they’re actually two separate issues. If you re-connect the mouthpiece and there’s nonetheless a problem with the vape pen, you then’ve a different draw back (but no less than now you have a clear mouthpiece!).
Vape Shop In Halton, Uk
This will push some liquid contained within the wicking channels and offer you some additional safety in opposition to dry hits. Take observe that you just would possibly expertise a bit of spitback on the primary puffs, because of additional bit of liquid that may’ve pooled contained in the coil. Some vape tanks will permit for prime-VG juice, whereas others will often require 50% PG or extra to carry out correctly.
If you’re looking out for e-liquid and vape hardware at a decreased worth, then check out our vape clearance part. We purchase mannequin new hardware and juices direct from producers day-to-day, and give you exactly the identical merchandise that we ship out day by day to outlets all through the nation.
Vape shop staff might be joyful to seek the advice of you about essentially the most suitable vaping hardware and e-liquids based on your stage of vaping. As we now have outlined, buying online is nice if you realize what e-liquid model you need to get or what e-cigarette system will give you the results you want. However, if you are a novice vaper, buying online can result in you buying a vaping gadget that will not work for you, which can lead to a waste of cash. At your local vape store, you will be able to see, contact and probably even strive a vaping gadget before you buy it.
Our retailer staff are completely skilled not simply in our kits and liquids nonetheless in understanding what product is biggest for the consumer. We guarantee all our retailer Managers and Assistant Managers endure rigorous product and repair coaching sooner than serving any customer.
So if you’re after a brand new vape equipment, in search of a mannequin new e-liquid, or just need to replenish on numerous accessories, at Vape Shop we now have you coated. With similar day dispatch and free supply available on orders over £15, we guarantee a clean and satisfying buyer expertise. Our vape shop listing has been created by our staff of enthusiastic vapers, together with the help from our UK vaping group and our superior clients. This will help you to make sure that your journey isn’t in vain and hopefully it’s attainable for you to to identify a vape retailer in Edinburgh that’s best for you. As one of the major online Vape companies, we provide a big selection of e-liquids from completely different manufacturers in numerous flavours and strengths. We supply a wide range of e liquids suited to all forms of vapers from these beginning out to those which were vaoing with us since 2008.
We current free supply on orders over £20, similar day dispatch and enterprise major customer assist. Browse top-of-the-line top quality Vape Kits and E-Cigarettes, for all ranges of experience together with new vapers. We just keep in mind to’ll be the primary one to take heed to in regards to the arrivals of our new merchandise, flavours and extra! As the biggest distributors of vaping products within the UK, we get our arms on the most recent merchandise sooner than anybody else. They furthermore inventory a unbelievable choice of e-liquids and whereas not an important providing what they do have is high quality.
Our neighborhood on HealthUnlocked presents members with a dialogue board to share experiences and also hosts polls and blogs. To register and be part of the dialog with different members of Pain Concern’s neighborhood please click on on on the button underneath. Our quarterly journal incorporates data and choices on self-management methods, ache therapies and personal experiences of residing with ache. Our data leaflets are available free to acquire or as full-color printed A5 merchandise. Vape Sourcing is probably going one of many latest Chinese outlets to offer some very good pricing on the newest vape gear. Experienced hashish content material material creator, writing in regards to the newest hashish data, inventory market updates and cannabis tradition. In the case of edibles, the excessive can final so long as 12 hours but typically is between 6-eight hours, which is why edibles aren’t actually useful to hashish novices.
As we’ve outlined, purchasing for on-line is great if you know what e-liquid model you want to get or what e-cigarette gadget shall be just right for you. However, when you’re a novice vaper, shopping for online may end up in you looking for a vaping system that will not be just right for you, which can lead to a waste of money. Sub-ohm vapes are primarily utilized in aggressive vaping one thing beginners guide to cannabidiol oil why everybody needs to take cbd that I’ll discuss significantly further later. We purchase mannequin new hardware and juices direct from producers day-to-day, and give you exactly the equivalent merchandise that we ship out every single day to retailers all through the nation. Vapestore solely stock the simplest e-liquids, that contains a galaxy of flavours all via every kind of e-liquid.
- The vary consists of vape hardware from properly-appreciated producers SMOKTech, Aspire, Geek vape and Vaporesso.
- Our e-liquid assortment is unrivalled, with over a thousand flavours from the best e-cigarette manufacturers along with Dinner Lady, IVG and Nasty Juice.
- Utilising the total differ of PnP coils together with an RBA coil, offering a bunch of vaping experiences.
- With our value match promise and professional information, we help vapers throughout the UK and worldwide discover the correct product on the best value, multi operate retailer.
Our group of cannabis professionals collectively share years of expertise in all corners of the market, from rising and retail, to science and medicine, to information and know-how. do NOT enhance your doses earlier than a full 4 hours have handed and also you’ve allowed the results to sink in. Edibles and oils could possibly be a few of the strongest ways to eat the herb, but it can be simple to overdo. What this means is that you will get extra nicotine compared to lower wattage units which are mouth to lung gadgets.
At Vapouriz, we stock an infinite alternative of field mods, e-cigarette setups and vape starter kits starting from as little as £19.ninety nine for a full tools. For vapers who like to build, we offer premium coil wire and cotton wick that can assist you create your own coils. By working with what we deem to be solely probably the greatest vaping producers, you presumably can make certain that the usual of the vape products you purchase could be of the best commonplace. Founded in 2008, we’re considered one of many nation’s longest standing vape companies and have led the easiest way not solely with vape know-how nonetheless vape standards and vapers’ rights. All of our inventory is TPD compliant, and we delight ourselves on only supplying completely examined and traceable merchandise. Whether it’s e-liquids or e-cigarettes, we’re committed to bringing you top-of-the-line vape merchandise on the UK e-cig market in addition to a safer different to smoking.
We are one of many main vape firms within the UK and we have been a fan favorite contained within the vaping neighborhood for years. Whether you’re new to vaping or an skilled vaper, our mission is to supply top 10 e liquid manufacturers within the usa you the very best quality e-liquids and vape hardware on the good costs. Aqua Vapour has been supplying the very best prime quality hardware and e-liquids to the UK for the final eight years. Unfortunately, a DTL vape pen tends to make use of extra e-liquid in a shorter period of time when compared to an MTL pen as the upper wattage power used by the system drains additional e-liquid. A DTL vape pen gadget ought to be used with an e-liquid or focus of no decrease than 70VG. These cleverly designed gadgets normally characteristic separate cartridges which may then be screwed onto the battery permitting vapers to quickly and easily swap between supplies.
Cigarette smoke and e-cigarette vapour would possibly look comparable, nonetheless they’re very fully totally different when it comes to science and safety. Browse the perfect top quality Vape Kits and E-Cigarettes, for all ranges of expertise together with new vapers. We give attention to having expert information, offering fantastic purchaser care, and stocking a wide selection of solely the very highest high quality vaping brands from all through the globe.
Aqua Vapour has been supplying the perfect high quality hardware and e-liquids to the UK for the final 8 years. Great customer support, help, glorious information and a passion for the vaping enterprise is crucial side of our enterprise. We strive to provide expert vaping advice and all the time advocate merchandise that may go well with our buyer’s needs. Our catalogue consists of greater than 2,000 merchandise from over one hundred fifty major producers. The range consists of vape hardware from in fashion producers SMOKTech, Aspire, Geek vape and Vaporesso. Our e-liquid collection is unrivalled, with over one thousand flavours from the best e-cigarette producers along with Dinner Lady, IVG and Nasty Juice. Vaping is also an endlessly nice, palms-on curiosity for fanatics which is why we offer quite a lot of premium offers and equipment.
This does come as a package deal so received’t be appropriate for these wanting to utilize their very own tank. Fusion is created utilizing the identical high quality USP components with no flavoring, creating a really versatile e-liquid. Still the reigning king of all tobacco e-liquids, with the fashion of straightforward, satisfying tobacco and a velvety finish. We give it some thought our obligation to ship premium worth to each shopper by sustaining the easiest requirements in all choices of our merchandise. Louise RedknappFormer skilled footballer Jamie Redknapp has been observed kissing his mannequin girlfriend Frida Andersson-Lourie in a car in Notting Hill. Powered by twin batteries, the Argus GT has a wattage vary of W and options an intensive temperature administration mode. Great customer support, help, glorious info and a ardour for the vaping business is essential facet of our enterprise.
Set up fences and netting in case your area experiences a lot of deer and totally different buying mammals. Dress your beds and containers with compost and worm castings to supply sluggish-launch vitamins all through the vegetative half. Use compost tea or seaweed fertiliser to ensure your vegetation get all of the minerals they want.
The excellent numerous for each skilled and novice vapers alike, this all-in-one e-cigarette combines forefront know-how with an advanced German design. We ponder it our duty to ship premium worth to every shopper by sustaining one of the best standards in all choices of our merchandise. Louise RedknappFormer skilled footballer Jamie Redknapp has been observed kissing his mannequin girlfriend Frida Andersson-Lourie in a car in Notting Hill. If you need to keep away from getting a burnt hit, consider to all the time prime your coils precisely. Burnt hits are the outcomes of powering an atomizer when there isn’t any liquid or not enough on the wicks. Without liquid to vaporize, the coils begin burning the wick, and the buyer mainly inhales burnt cotton. Here are a wide range of the most common causes behind burnt hits and some advice that can allow you to stay away from them.
There are three fully totally different adjustable power modes for vapers to choose from, so customised vaping is a breeze. The Titan X 2021 by ePuffer is small enough to fit within the palm of your hand however highly efficient sufficient to stand as much as other field mods. When you visit any website, it might retailer or retrieve data in your browser, principally in the type of cookies. This info might be about you, your preferences or your gadget and is mostly used to make the positioning work as you anticipate it to.
Our specialist on-line vape retailer presents the largest choice of digital cigarettes, hardware and e-liquids in the UK. With our value match promise and professional information, we help vapers all through the UK and worldwide discover the right product on one of the best worth, multi function retailer.
Our Shortfills vary is in depth and we moreover cater for Salt Nic lovers who get pleasure from a straightforward throat hit. Experts in Hardware Vape kits from properly-favored primary producers very like Innokin, Smok and Geekvape provided completely examined and TPD compliant. Ksenia is a contributing writer to leading fashion, way of life and CBD magazines and blogs. You can bump into Ksenia at her favourite cafe in South Kensington where she has written most blogs. Ksenia is a daily contributor at main fashion, lifestyle as well as CBD magazines and blogs. My first attempt at vaping obtained right here once more in 2009 on a number of of the first cigalikes to ever attain Europe. The consciousness- and ideas-altering outcomes of cannabis principally attributed to essentially the most accurately-identified cannabinoid THC are merely a welcome or unwelcome by-product for you.
We are one of many main vape corporations in the UK and we’ve been a fan favorite inside the vaping group for years. There’s an e-cigarette gadget to swimsuit every vaper and you’ll find the perfect at Vapestore. From starter kits like our bestselling Fuse and VPOD to Pod Kits like JUUL and the SMOK Nord, that includes closed pod systems like JUUL pods and open, refillable pod kits just like the Voopoo Vinci. For the extra superior vaper, we provide a wide range of various resistance and gauge coil wire – from Kanthal to Clapton and Mesh, Wick Cotton to coil jigs and rather more. The Vapestore weblog focuses on everything from coil constructing to competitions, and seeks to make sense of the usually-daunting world of vaping.
Author Biograhy: Nataly Komova founded Chill Hempire after experiencing the first-hand results of CBD in helping her to relieve her skin condition. Nataly is now determined to spread the word about the benefits of CBD through blogging and taking part in events. In her spare time, Nataly enjoys early morning jogs, fitness, meditation, wine tasting, traveling and spending quality time with her friends. Nataly is also an avid vintage car collector and is currently working on her 1993 W124 Mercedes. Nataly is a contributing writer to many CBD magazines and blogs. She has been featured in prominent media outlets such as Cosmopolitan, Elle, Grazia, Women’s Health, The Guardian and others.